HIV-1 Dynamics in the Host Cell: A Review of Viral- and Host- Protein Interactions and Potential Therapeutic Targets for HIV-1 Infection

Masha Sorin, Ganjam V. Kalpana


HIV-1, the causative agent of AIDS, is a sophisticated retrovirus that has both evolved to invade the complex human immune system and adapted to utilize the host machinery for its own propagation. A dynamic interaction between the virus and host systems can be observed at every step of the HIV-1 lifecycle. Host factors are involved not only in mounting antiviral responses, but are also hijacked by the virus to enhance viral replication. Host factors are necessary for viral replication during entry, reverse transcription, nuclear import, integration, transcription, nuclear export, translation, assembly, and budding. Recently, a new class of host factors, called “host restriction factors,” has been identified that prevent retroviral replication in a specific host cell environment and constitute an important part of intracellular innate immunity against the virus. These restriction factors act as barriers to retroviral replication at various stages within the infected cell. Nevertheless, the HIV-1 virus has learned to subvert these antiviral responses and successfully propagate within the permissive host environment. This review article describes the identification and mechanism of action of several pro- and anti-HIV-1 host factors. It is likely that we are only beginning to get a glimpse of an ongoing complex battle between HIV-1 and the host, the understanding of which should provide valuable information for the development of novel therapeutic strategies against HIV-1. 


HIV; AIDS; Therapeutic; Protein Interactions

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